Java 8 Streams 101

Java 8 introduced a new Stream API. In this article we will take a look at how to create and use streams.

How do I create Streams?

Streams can be created using the of method on the Stream class like this:

Stream<String> stream = Stream.<String>of("Lorem", "ipsum", "dolor", "sit", "amet");

Or calling the stream() method on list or any collection like this:

List<String> list = Arrays.asList("Lorem", "ipsum", "dolor", "sit", "amet");
Stream<String> stream =;

Or from an Array like this:

String sentence = "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit";
String[] tokens = sentence.split(" ");
Stream<String> stream =;

Or you also use the Stream.Builder:

Stream.Builder<String> builder = Stream.builder();
Stream<String> stream =;

Stream Pipelines

Stream manipulate data in terms of pipelines. They have intermediate and terminal operations. Intermediate operations work on a stream, process it and return a stream. Example of such operations are map, filter, etc. Terminal Operations produce a side effect. Example of such operations are Collectors. Let’s take a deeper look in all these operations.

Let’s say we want to convert a list of string to lowercase. Earlier we use to do:

List<String> tokens = getTokens();
List<String> lowerCased = new ArrayList<>();
for (String token : tokens) {

With Streams, this can be rewritten in more readable way:

List<String> lowerCased =;

In this example to we first create a stream from the list/collection using stream() method. Then we apply bunch of intermediate operations, map in this case. Finally, we collect all the result in a list using collect method.

What transformations can we apply?

There are many predefined transformations available - map, filter, limit, skip, sort, etc.

What are the terminal operations we can apply?

Terminal operations typically produce a result. You can have terminal operations to collect and convert the stream to any collections, or you can find some more information about the stream like - first, last, sum, findAny, distinct. If the operations is not present in the predefined operations, you can write a reducer function that reduces the entire stream to a single value by repeatedly applying a method.

To Vague. Show me some examples!

Filter Strings based on a condition

Find out Strings greater than 5 characters long

Before Streams

List<String> input = Arrays.asList("lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit".split(" "));
List<String> filtered = new ArrayList<>();
for (String token : input) {
    if (token.length() > 5) {

After Streams

List<String> input = Arrays.asList("lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit".split(" "));
List<String> out =
        .filter(it -> it.length() > 5)

// out = [consectetur, adipiscing]